5 Anti-Diabetes Attitudes
Choosing your carbohydrates, avoiding sugary drinks even light, favoring mild cooking, walking… all good gestures to limit your risk of diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by an excess of glucose in the blood due to insulin resistance. It is a disease associated in part with lifestyle factors (overweight, sedentary lifestyle, poor diet …). By acting on certain modifiable factors, it is possible to avoid developing diabetes, especially if you are in prediabetes. Here are some precautions to take.
1. Avoid sugary drinks
A study published in the European Journal of Endocrinology shows that drinking 2 sugary drinks a day is associated with a 2-fold risk of two forms of diabetes: type-2 diabetes and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults. Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (or LADA for latent autoimmune diabetes in adults ). LADA is a form of autoimmune diabetes that progresses slowly and affects adults. It is similar to type 1 diabetes in which the pancreas no longer produces insulin. Some experts consider it a hybrid between type 1 diabetes (autoimmune disease) and type 2 diabetes (disease of civilization).
Previous studies have already shown that regular consumption of sugary drinks increases the risk of type-2 diabetes. For example, a meta-analysis reported a 13% increase in diabetes risk for each sugar drink consumed daily. And “light” drinks are also concerned, especially because they increase appetite by altering the signaling of satiety and they reduce glucose tolerance by modifying the gut microbiota.
Researchers analyzed data on more than 2,800 people, some with diabetes (type 2 or LADA), others with good health. Results: 2 sugary drinks of 200 ml consumed daily are linked to a doubled risk of developing diabetes. And the risk is pretty much the same with light drinks, containing sweeteners. In addition, for each additional drink per day – light or not – the risk of type 2 diabetes increases by 20%, the risk of LADA by 15%.
It is estimated that 9% of type 2 diabetes diagnosed in Europeans would be positive for LADA. However, the consumption of sugary drinks – light or not – is associated with an increased risk of both forms of diabetes.
Several factors may explain this association: first, high intakes of sugary drinks are associated with an increased risk of obesity, itself associated with type-2 diabetes. With regard to latent autoimmune diabetes, researchers believe that the consumption of sugary drinks causes peaks in blood sugar and thus insulin peaks.These repeated phenomena could stress and then deplete the cells that produce insulin.
However, this is an association and the study can not conclude that there is a causal link between the consumption of sugary drinks and the risk of diabetes.Many other factors come into play. However the reasons to stop sodas and other soft drinks, even light are not lacking: increased visceral fat, hypertension, risk of heart attack, precocious puberty, accelerated aging…
2. Choosing your carbohydrates
To reduce the risk of developing diabetes, carbohydrates can be reduced or better chosen. The anti-fat messages have increased the consumption of refined and ultra-processed starchy starchy foods and at the same time the number of people suffering from diabetes … All carbohydrate foods, be they sugary foods or bread and potatoes are converted to glucose. The more refined they are, the faster this conversion is and the problem. Many of the carbohydrate-rich foods consumed in industrialized countries are of low quality, ie with a high glycemic index and load, few fibers, but many calories.
To manage this blood sugar, the pancreas produces insulin. But when low-quality carbohydrates are consumed in excessive amounts, insulin resistance sets in and diabetes develops.
To reduce your risk of diabetes, choose low or moderate glycemic index carbohydrates that are of real interest for your health. International researchers have agreed on the usefulness of the glycemic index for health, and demand that manufacturers post the glycemic index of food.
3. Give priority to olive oil
Olive oil helps control blood sugar, according to an article in Nutrition & Diabeteswhere scientists show that extra virgin olive oil improves glucose and cholesterol levels in the blood. In this article, researchers tested the effect of extra virgin olive oil added to a Mediterranean type meal. 25 healthy people participated and ate a typical Mediterranean meal with or without extra virgin olive oil (10 g). In another part of the study, volunteers had a Mediterranean meal with 10 g of olive oil or 10 g of corn oil.
In the first part of the study, 2 hours after the meal, those who had eaten the meal with olive oil had significantly less glucose and LDL-cholesterol in the blood, and more insulin compared to those who had not had olive oil. In the second part of the study, olive oil improved lipid and glycemic profiles, compared to corn oil: there was a smaller increase in glucose, more insulin and less LDL with olive oil.
As a result, extra virgin olive oil improves glucose levels after a meal. The prevention of diabetes through the Mediterranean diet could be due to the antioxidant properties of olive oil. Thus, for example, among the components of extra virgin olive oil, oleuropein would reduce oxidative stress.
4. Limit fried foods and grills
The frying and grilling lead to the formation of advanced glycation products, AGEs, resulting from the Maillard reaction. AGEs are abundant in processed products (bread products, biscuits, fast food, chips, peanuts, almonds and grilled foods, etc.). However, AGEs promote aging and many observational studies have linked elevated blood levels of AGE and diabetes.
Researchers have investigated whether the risk of diabetes can be reduced by adopting a low-AGE diet. They followed 138 men and women divided into 2 groups, all suffering from the metabolic syndrome characterized in particular by disorders of blood glucose. One control group was not allowed to change their diet, while the other group had to limit cooking at high temperatures (barbecue, frying, baking) and replace them with softer cooking (steaming, cooking). water, etc.). Researchers assessed insulin resistance at the beginning and end of the study with a blood test.
At the end of the study, compared to the control group, participants in the AGE-poor group had a significant improvement in insulin resistance: almost 2-fold lower. Another interesting finding was that the group on a low AGE diet had lower markers of oxidative stress and inflammation.
AGEs may have a direct effect on the pancreas by altering the insulin manufacturing pathway, altering insulin, and activating the expression of pro-inflammatory genes.
5. Walking and building muscles
One study reports that walking is much more effective than running to improve prediabetes markers, and is even more effective combined with healthy eating.
Researchers wanted to know if physical activity alone could equal the effect of allied sport, and which physical activity was most effective. 150 Americans in pre-diabetes stage (fasting blood glucose between 1.06 g / L and 1.26 g / L) were selected. The participants were randomly divided into 4 distinct groups.
The first group changed their diet to lose weight and practiced moderate physical activity, equivalent to 12 km of walking per week.
People from the other three groups were not allowed to change their diet but had to do physical activity (walking or jogging) at a variable frequency (12 or 20 km): group number 2 had to walk the equivalent of 12 km per week or 3 hours of walking. Group 3 had to walk the equivalent of 20 km per week, or 5 hours of walking. And the fourth group had to run 20 km a week, the equivalent of 2 hours of jogging.
Group 1 (diet + walking 12 km) had the best results: glucose tolerance was improved by 8% while fasting blood glucose decreased by 0.15 g / L. Then, it was the group that had to walk 20 km per week which achieved good results. The jogging group came last, with the participants showing almost no metabolic improvement: improvement in glucose tolerance by only 2% and no improvement in fasting blood glucose.
Other studies have shown that walking after a meal reduces blood sugar.
Along with walking or other exercises that require endurance, bodybuilding offers a good bulwark against diabetes. A developed muscle mass is accompanied by a decrease in blood glucose and an increase in insulin sensitivity.
Josefin E Löfvenborg, Tomas Andersson, Per-Ola Carlsson, Mozhgan Dorkhan, Leif Groop, Mats Martinell, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Alicja Wolk, Sofia Carlsson.Sweetened beverage intake and risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) and type 2 diabetes. European Journal of Endocrinology (2016) 175, 605-614.
Violi F, Loffredo L, Pignatelli P, Angelico F, Bartimoccia S, Nocella C, Cangemi R, Petruccioli A, Monticolo R, Pastori D, Carnevale R. Extra Virgin olive oil is associated with postprandial blood glucose and LDL cholesterol in healthy subjects. Nutr Diabetes. 2015 Jul 20; 5: e172. doi: 10.1038 / nutd.2015.23.
Helen Vlassara, Weijing Cai, Elizabeth Tripp, Renata Pyzik, Kalle Yee, Laurie Goldberg, Laurie Tansman, Xue Chen, Venkatesh Mani, Zahi Fayad, Girish N. Nadkarni, Gary E. Striker, John C. He, Jaime Uribarri. Oral AGE restriction ameliorates insulin resistance in obese patients with the metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. Diabetologia, 2016; DOI: 10.1007 / s00125-016-4053-x.
Joseph JJ, Echouffo-Tcheugui JB, Golden SH, Chen H, Jenny NS, Carnethon MR, Jacobs D Jr., Burke GL, Vaidya D, Ouyang P., Bertoni AG. “Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus : The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). “BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2016 Jun 23; 4 (1): e000185. doi: 10.1136 / bmjdrc-2015-000185. eCollection 2016.